Acne is a disease with clogged pores (black and white dots), red blisters, inflamed bumps and cysts in the deep layers of the skin. The disease can usually be seen on the face, neck, chest, back, shoulders and even the upper arms. Many people have acne during puberty. However, acne can be seen up to the age of 20, even up to the age of forty. Acne regresses without treatment in a few years, but there is no need to remain untreated in this process. Also, untreated acne can leave scars. Although acne is not a life-threatening disease, it negatively affects the patient psychologically. In addition, acne can leave serious and permanent scars.
How does acne occur?
In men and women, the male hormone increases during adolescence, stimulating the sebaceous glands and causing them to grow. Acne is common in areas where sebaceous glands are common, such as the face, back and chest. Rarely, acne can be seen with hormonal disorders.
The sebaceous glands are located in a canal that includes the hair, which we call a follicle. The sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance called sebum, which travels through the duct and is excreted from the pores on the skin surface. The place where the sebaceous gland duct opens into the skin is called a pore. The oil secreted from the canal and the dead skin cells that are expelled from the canal combine with and block the skin pores. Thus, bacteria easily reproduce in this channel. The chemicals produced by these bacteria stimulate the inflammatory reaction in the sebaceous gland and thus the wall of the canal cracks. The distribution of sebum, bacteria and dead cells in the skin causes redness, swelling and an inflammatory reaction.
Acne control takes a long time. All acne treatments provide protection from acne. Acne will heal spontaneously. This recovery takes time. If your acne does not improve in 6-8 weeks, the treatment should be changed. The treatment preferred by your dermatologist depends on the type and severity of your acne. Occasionally, an acne-like rash may develop from make-up, lotions, or oral medications. You should inform your dermatologist about the treatments you apply to your skin or use orally.
Your dermatologist can prescribe creams, gels and lotions containing vitamin A and benzol peroxide, which unclog the sebaceous glands and inhibit bacterial growth. These products cause drying and peeling of the skin. The dermatologist will provide you with the necessary information for the correct use of these products and to avoid their side effects.
Antibiotics can be applied to the skin in the treatment of acne. These products are used in more severe cases of acne. If there are painful masses under the skin, which we call cysts, your dermatologist can inject these cysts with cortisone.
Your doctor can hollow out your pimples and clear your black and whiteheads. Do not pop or squeeze your pimples yourself. When pimples are squeezed, they become more red and swollen and leave scars.
Oral antibiotics containing tetracycline, doxycycline and erythromycin are often used in patients with moderate or severe acne, especially those with multiple acne on the back and chest area. Antibiotics directly reduce the number of bacteria in the sebaceous gland and the redness of the skin.